The motivation for Radical parties in Russia:


The decline of the Romanov Dynasty opens the door for the Radical parties to take control.
Leading to the beginning of the Second World War, Russia, like other European countries, was determined to use imperialism in order to expand their empire. Imperialism as we were taught in class is the idea of a nation wanting, and having a desire of getting more land and control in ones own country. Therefore, Russia chose to focus its resources into expanding its influence into Asia, with their own believes and morals. This action, they believed would be easy, since in the pacific had been connected throuugh the construction of the trans-Siberian railway in 1891.
For the first time, a non-European superpower had defeated a Great Russian power, which was not so much of the problem. It was the racist nature at the time which led Russians to believe they had been defeated by an inferior race and country. The Russo-Japanese war was a humiliating experience for the Romanov’s. The regime’s political authority had been undermined (like B.Obama by the losing the House of Representatives) and it could no longer ignore the growing demands for political change. From Bloody Sunday (January 22nd, 1905) until October 30th, Russia was wracked with political conflict and dissension, most of which was connected to the loss of the Prussian-Japanese war.[1] This continued through, until 1917, to the point where the economy and nation was in chaos.
Russia, although having become a fourth world power in industrial output, lacked in many areas of its economy. Problems involved:
1. Only 1.75% of the total population was employed in the factories
2. Foreign investors controlled many of the important industries
3. Agriculture still employed 80% of the population which could not keep peace with the population (there was an increase of 61 million people between 1890 and 1914) 
These problems caused many problems for the Tsar Nicholas. One might think he would be happy; having added to the population and knowing that foreign investment might stimulate the economy. This though was not the case since Russia was looking to become more technologically advanced, having such a agrarian based economy with very few people employed in the factories while the remaining population being unemployed created a major problem. For example, in late February 1917, Tsar had made the ‘dumb’ move of promoting himself as supreme commander of the army. Russia then suffered severe losses- 4 million men and 2 million more chose to desert the front.[2] As the Tsar remained on the front, he was blamed for the losses, in the citys of Russia. Although the city was considered safe because it was inhabited by 160,000 soldiers. Riots broke out into the streets, over the issue of food distribution, since the people of Russia were starving. Soon after, the Cossacks (the most trusted branch of the army) made the independant decision to hand out food since it was their own people suffering unnecessarily. This event foreshadowed that the reign of the Tsar would soon come to an end: about time!(after 304 years of having Romanov rule).
When the Tsar and his son Alexi abdicated the throne on March 2nd, 1917 and his brother obviously refused the crown on following day, Russia became a republic. Therefore, a temporary provisional government was established until elections could take place. Unable to find immediate solutions to the current crisis, the government was soon pushed aside by Lenin and his Bolshevik followers.
The Bolsheviks were able to take power because of the Romanovs had failure to:
· Deal with the economic and social changes, demanded by a newly industrializing state[3]· Reforms- such as progressive labor legislation and safety standards in factories· Clinging to an autocratic mode of government and unwilling to delegate authority to the Duma, every decision made by the Duma was hindered by Tsar Officials.[4]· Inadequate rail transportation was stressed to capacity with the outbreak of the Great War (lack of railway to transport food as well as having to provide the army with food).· End Russia’s involvement in the war- no one wanted the war other then the Mensheviks
On 7 November 1917, Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin led his left-winged revolutionaries in a revolt against the ineffective Provisional Government. With huge demonstrations going on, the power balance was nearly tipped before Lenin was accused of being a German agent and was forced to flee to Finland while his chief advisor, Trotsky was imprisoned. A swift end to an ambitious and almost successful coup d'etat.
With Lenin's return some years later, with help from the Germans (hoping to create internal conflict that would force Russia out of the war), the popularity of the Bolsheviks increased. Public frustration, in particular among workers, soldiers and peasants with the Provisional Government, pushed the Bolshevik party into popularity. On October 25th 1917, Red Bolshevik troops stormed strategic positions in Petrograd-this including the winter palace. Members of the provisional government were arrested and soviet authority was established.

Radical Parties in Russia:
The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party:
WHO? And WHEN?
The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party or RSDLP was a revolutionary socialist Russian political party formed in 1898. Its main purpose was to unite the revolutionary organizations into one large party, and it did happen at Minsk. It was also referred as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party.The party was one of the first Russian Marxist groups and was based on the theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.It was based on the beliefs on Communism.
In 1903, the party split into two separate factions:
· The Bolsheviks (Russian word for "majority") led by Lenin, Trotsky
· The Mensheviks (Russian word for "minority") led by Martov, Trotsky (later joined the bolshiviks in 1917) and Plekhanov

HOW?

The party was illegal for most of its presence. For example, in March 1898, all nine founding delegates were arrested by the Imperial Russian Police after their first meeting, called the First Congress. In 1903, the Second Congress of the party met in exile in Brussels. This was an attempt to create a united force, and this time, Lenin as a member. However, when Belgian authorities closed in the congress, it was forced to move to August 11th, in London. At the congress, the party split into the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. Although it greatly reduced the strengths of the parties, it was a smart move since they were able to have a more defined set of policies with less inner conflict and more decisive leadership. Such leadership that would later become the key in defeating 'the White's'.

Below-Right : Lenin in Finland August 11, 1917 (first congress)
Source: Wikipedia- Vladamir Lenin

external image Lenin_05d.jpg
WHY?

When Lenin joined the party, he recommended a disciplined and centralized party of committed activists.

It was Lenin's position on Democratic Centralism:[5]

  • That all directing bodies of the Party, from top to bottom, shall be elected
  • That Party bodies shall give periodical accounts of their activities to their respective Party organizations
  • That there shall be strict Party discipline and the subordination of the minority to the majority so that all decisions o of higher bodies shall be absolutely binding on lower bodies


*major causes to the split  

In our opinion, we believe that the split of The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party was a good cause. The split lead to the formation of two parties, the Mensheviks, and the Bolsheviks. If it weren't for the split, Russians would have not had the Bolsheviks as party and their success. Lenin believed in "What is to be done," which meant that he believed in taking action rather than planning for a long time. He also believed to get things done other than to wait. This is a good thing becasue their party accomplished things no one believed they would. For example, Lenin knew that not every Russian wanted to have a war, so he made the treat with Germany. This treaty is know as the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Also we believed it was a good thing becasue with both Bolsheviks and Mensheviks as two different parties, they both weakened their ranks and by Tsarist repression, they were tempted to try to re-unite the party in January of 1910, but by August 1910, the unification attempts had failed: A blessing in disguise.



Bolsheviks:
WHO And WHEN?

The Bolsheviks were founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. It was created after the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party divided into two parties in 1903 at the Second Congress in London, England. This party was an organization of professional revolutionaries. They were governed by the principle of democratic centralism (explained in the RSLDP section) who considered themselves as ‘forward looking’ and unconventional revolutionary working class citizens.

The main principles of the Bolsheviks were:

  • Believed in organizing a party in a centralized and disciplined fashion that wanted to overthrow the Tsar through a mass workers' revolution
  • In creating a radical/new party (a political party at the forefront of a mass action, movement, or revolution)


People were attracted to Lenins promise of land, bread and peace as well as his charismatic personality. His promises to the people included:

· The distribution of land to the peasants
· The handing over of power in the factories to the workers
· To take Russia out of the War at any cost-many Russians liked this idea

In keeping his promise of peace, Lenin signed a peace treaty with the Germans that had earlier been rejected by his former government. Lenin signed the treaty for the members of the Bolsheviks party to concentrate on the work they needed to do in Russia, in order to end the war with Germany. The treaty was known as the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The treaty would give away:
· 26% of it’s railway
· 33% of it’s manufacturing industries
· 73% of it’s iron industries
· 75% of it’s coal fields

To the newly created independent countries of Ukraine, Poland, Finland, Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia, 60 million people would now live in the counties. However, the soviet government was in no position to fight the Germans, so basically he was willing to give up a lot of his countries resources to save his political power. In giving away half his country, he could stay in power and please the people. Unfortunately, he was not really concerned with the people since, he decided to kill 40 million of them! Therefore, this agreement essentially saved the Bolshevik government, and Lenin could now begin to carry out the ideology of Communism.


The widget doesn't work but here's a video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F2v9Ob6ZWPU

Under Stalin in the late 1920’s , the party engaged in a heavy recruitment campaign of new members from both the working class and rural areas. This was both an attempt to "proletarianize" the party and was an attempt by Stalin to strengthen his base. He would do this by outnumbering the Old Bolsheviks and reducing their influence in the party. By 1933, the party had approximately 3.5 million members, but as a result of the Great Purge party membership, it was cut down to 1.9 million by 1939. In 1952 at the party congress, Stalin asked a good question, even if it was a cocky one. He asked, "There are no more Mensheviks. Why should we call ourselves Bolsheviks? We are not the majority, but the whole party." According to his suggestion, the Bolshevik party was renamed the Communist Party of Soviet Union. 

Mensheviks:
WHO? And WHEN?

The Menshevik Party came into power when the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party divided into two parties in 1903 at the Second Congress in London, England. The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party split to be the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks Party. The Mensheviks party was led by Julius Martov, a boy born in Istanbul in 1873 with middle class, Jewish parents. Members of the Mensheviks were skilled philosophers, Russians influenced by Karl Marx and his ideologies, and the party was also led by moderate socialists.

Julies Martov
Julies Martov

Left: Julies Martov
Source: Wikipedia- Julies Martov


The main principles of the Mensheviks were:

  • Wanted bourgeoisie groups and middle class groups to help them overthrow the Tsar
  • They let anyone join their party-"Open Membership Policy"
  • Main goal was to attract the middle class and factory owners-they did!
  • They got more support because the party had an "open approach"
  • Wanted a liberal, capitalist regime in order to be a Socialist Society

Problems they faced:

  • Their ‘open approach’ would result in open disagreement among the party
  • Wanted Russia to continue fighting in the war, but many Russians did not- causing their to be a decrease in number of Russians supporting them
  • As the Bolsheviks gained more power, many members of the Mensheviks were joining the opposing group. Ex: Trotsky was part of the Mensheviks, but in 1917, he joined the Bolsheviks, later becoming one of the revolution leaders
  • Development of labour unions

Confusingly, the Mensheviks were actually the larger faction. Lenin's faction later ended up in the minority and remained smaller than the Mensheviks until the Russian Revolution of 1917. Other reasons are detailed in the table:
Mensheviks
Bolsheviks
-No Democratic Centralism
-Democratic Centralism
-Favoured a more open membership policy
-Creating a successful revolution required that party membership be limited only to professional full-time revolutionaries
-Believed that Russia was still at too early a stage in history for an immediate working-class revolution, and believed a "bourgeois" revolution must precede the subsequent "proletarian" revolution
-Pushed for an almost immediate "proletarian" revolution
-More inclined to work with the liberal "bourgeois" democratic parties..
-Tended to advocate alliances with peasant representatives and other radical socialist parties
-Legal methods and trade union work
-Favored armed violence

With both Bolsheviks and Mensheviks weakened by splits within their ranks and by Tsarist repression, they were tempted to try to re-unite the party in January of 1910, but by August 1910, the unification attempts had failed: A blessing in disguise.


Cadets: external image 50664650.jpg?v=1&c=IWSAsset&k=2&d=E41C9FE5C4AA0A1453EF54BFF0106C3BCA6B885E7ABF99F07B0A85C3FF18AD9FB01E70F2B3269972WHO? And WHEN?The Cadets were members of the Constitutional Democratic Party that formed in October 12th to 18th 1905. The Constitutional Democratic Party was also commonly referred to the Party of People’s Freedom. They were also a liberal political party. This party came to be by the Union of Liberation, local counsels, and they were supported by lawyers, school professors, and industrialists. The Constitutional Democratic Party also received 37% of urban votes and 30%seats in Duma. This took place when they were invited to join Prime Minister in his cabinet in October of 1905. This event also formed the majority in Duma.
What they believed in, and wanted:
  • Wanted political and social order to be run democratically
  • Universal suffrage (even women's suffrage!)
  • Wanted radical changes and demands
  • Wanted Russia to be a constitutional union
  • Wanted economic equality among everyone- including working class and upper class
  • Believed in civil rights for all citizens

WHY?

During the month of October 1905, there was also the October Manifesto that Tsar signed. The signing of the Manifesto, created the new Constitutional Democratic Party, leading to the Cadets.
Today, there are programs and schools for young man to be Cadets, and join the Russian navy, in Russia.

Quick Summary:

Party
Leader(s) and Followers:
When? And Where?
Their believes:
What they wanted:
The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party
-Large group formed
-Socialist Party
-1898 but soon in 1903, the party split into the Bolsheviks, and the Mensheviks
-Influenced by Karl Marx, and Friedrich Engels
-Communism
-Better conditions for workers such as food, taxes, wages
Bolsheviks
-Lenin
-Trotsky
-Revolutionaries
-At the Second Congress in London, England
-1903 when the RSDLP split into two parties
-"Land, bread, and peace"
(Lenin words)
-Distribution of land to the peasants
-Power to the bourgaires
-No more war
Mensheviks
-Martov
-Trotsky (later joined the bolshiviks in 1917)
-Plekhanov
-anyone "open membership policy"
-At the Second Congress in London, England
-1903 when the RSDLP split into two parties
-That communism is good
-If had democracy, that it would lead Russia into a communism country
-Wanted a liberal, capitalist regime
-To be a Socialist Society
-Democracy in country for Communism
Cadets
-Democratic leaders
-Members of the Constitutional Democratic Party
-Supported by lawyers, school professors
-October 12th to 18th 1905
-Civil rights for all citizens
-Supported minorities
-Political and social order to be run democratically
-Radical changes and demands
-Russia to be a constitutional union
-Economic equality among everyone- including working class and upper class

By: Ana Lucia Villarreal And Alex Austin


Bib
Bibliography:
"Russian Social Democratic Labour Party - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2010.
__http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Social_Democratic_Labour_Party__.

"Russian Revolution (1917) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. __http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Revolution_(1917)__.


"Bolshevik - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Mon. 1 Nov. 2010. __http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolshevik__.


"Bolshevik Revolution: 1917." Then Again. . .. N.p., n.d. Mon. 1 Nov. 2010. __http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/easteurope/octrev.html__


"Menshevik - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Nov. 2010. __http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menshevik__.


"Mensheviks." Spartacus Educational - Home Page. N.p., n.d. Sat. 30 Oct. 2010. __http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSmensheviks.htm__


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__http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/mensheviks.htm__


"Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Mon. 1 Nov. 2010. __http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Brest-Litovsk__.


"Russian Social Democratic Labour Party." Main Page. N.p., n.d. Tues. 2 Nov. 2010. __http://www.fact-index.com/r/ru/russian_social_democratic_labour_party.html__.


"Cadet Russia." Navy. N.p., n.d. Tues. 2 Nov. 2010. __http://rusnavy.com/education/cadet.php__.


"Cadet Corps (Russia) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Tues. 2 Nov. 2010. __http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadet_Corps_(Russia)__.


Constitutional Democratic Party - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. __http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_Democratic_Party__.




*Format by __www.bibme.org/__
Picture Bibliography:cadets-http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://cache3.asset-cache.net/xc/50664650.jpg%3Fv%3D1%26c%3DIWSAsset%26k%3D2%26d%3DE41C9FE5C4AA0A1453EF54BFF0106C3BCA6B885E7ABF99F07B0A85C3FF18AD9FB01E70F2B3269972&imgrefurl=http://www.life.com/image/50664650&usg=__iZrhGRv_Nuj_KQQWQN0sR5huQ64=&h=395&w=594&sz=67&hl=en&start=0&zoom=0&tbnid=yJUVRmnIhF4xVM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=135&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dkadets%2Brussia%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1328%26bih%3D898%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=906&vpy=131&dur=893&hovh=90&hovw=135&tx=118&ty=61&ei=EJndTLTXGYzmsQP19dW1Cg&oei=EJndTLTXGYzmsQP19dW1Cg&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=30&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:0
Footnotes

[1] History Textbook-"Global Forces of the Twenth Century"
[2] History Textbook-"Global Forces of the Twenth Century"
[3] History Textbook-"Global Forces of the Twenth Century"
[4] History Textbook-"Global Forces of the Twenth Century"
[5] Wikipedia- democratic centralism